An Introduction to Complex Systems

Textbook Further Reading Page | (see also Reading Questions page) |

Quick links to Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Appendix A B

**Chapter 1: Introduction**

References:

1. C. Martenson. *The Crash Course: The Unsustainable Future of our Economy, Energy, and Environment*. Wiley, 2011.

2. M. Scheffer. *Critical transitions in nature and society*. Princeton University Press, 2009.

3. A. Weisman. *The World Without Us*. Picador, 2007.

4. R. Wright. *A Short History of Progress*. House of Anansi Press, 2004.

**Chapter 2: Global Warming**

Further Reading Links:

Global Warming, Climate Change

References:

1. K. Emanual. *What We Know About Climate Change*. MIT Press, 2012.

2. A. Johnson and N. White. Ocean acidification: The other climate change issue. *American
Scientist*, 102(1), 2014.

3. L. Kump et al. *The Earth System*. Prentice Hall, 2010.

4. F. Mackenzie. *Our Changing Planet*. Prentice Hall, 2011.

5. B. McKibben. *The Global Warming Reader*. OR Books, 2011.

6. R. Primack. *Walden Warming*. University of Chicago Press, 2014.

7. M. Scheffer. *Critical transitions in nature and society*. Princeton University Press, 2009.

**Chapter 3: Systems Theory**

Further Reading Links:

Systems theory: System, Systems theory, Systems of Systems, Steady state

Thermodynamics: Thermodynamics, Entropy, Energy, Landauer’s principle

Global Flows:
Water cycle,
Nitrogen cycle,
Carbon cycle,
Earth’s Energy Budget,

Vitousek et al. Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle, *Issues in Ecology*, 1997.

Examples: EROEI, Environmental economics, Full-cost accounting, Environmental accounting, Externalities, Maximum power principle, Technological Singularity

References:

1. Special issue on the singularity. *IEEE Spectrum* 45(6), 2008.

2. J. Diamond. *Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed*. Penguin, 2011.

3. A. Ghosh. *Dynamic Systems for Everyone: Understanding How Our World Works*. Springer, 2015.

4. J. Greer. *How Civilizations Fall: A Theory of Catabolic Collapse*. Unpublished, 2005.

5. R. Heinberg. *Searching for a Miracle: Net Energy Limits & the Fate of Industrial Society*. Post Carbon Institute, 2009.

6. C. Hidalgo. *Why Information Grows: The Evolution of Order, from Atoms to Economies*. Basic Books, 2015.

7. T. Homer-Dixon. *The Upside of Down: Catastrophe, Creativity, and the Renewal of Civilization*. Knopf, 2006.

8. D. Meadows. *Thinking in Systems: A Primer*. Chelsea Green, 2008.

9. D. Meadows, J. Randers, and D. Meadows. *Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update*. Chelsea Green, 2004.

10. H. Odum. *Environmental Accounting: Emergy and Environmental Decision Making*. Wiley, 1996.

11. H. Odum. *Environment, Power, and Society for the Twenty-First Century*. Columbia, 2007.

12. J. Salatin. *Salad Bar Beef*. Polyface, 1996.

13. S. Schaltegger and R. Burritt. *Contemporary Environmental Accounting: Issues, Concepts and Practice*. Greenleaf Publishing, 2000.

14. E. Schumacher. *Small is Beautiful: A Study of Economics as if People Mattered*. Vintage Digital, 2011.

15. J. Smillie and G. Gershuny. *The Soul of Soil*. Chelsea Green, 1999.

16. K. Stowe. *An Introduction to Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics*. Cambridge, 2007.

17. J. Tainter. *The Collapse of Complex Societies*. Cambridge, 1990.

18. M. Wackernagel and W. Rees. *Our Ecological Footprint*. New Society, 1995.

19. J. Weaver. *Root Development of Field Crops*. McGraw Hill, 1926.

20. R. Wright. *A Short History of Progress*. House of Anansi Press, 2004.

**Chapter 4: Dynamic Systems**

Further Reading Links:

Analysis: Dynamical system, Time series, Fourier transform, Wavelet transform<./a>, Principal components

Statistics: Correlation and Dependence, Correlation coefficient, Correlation and Causality, Stationary Process, Pearson’s Chi-Squared test

References:

1. G. Box, G. Jenkins, and G. Reinsel. *Time series analysis: forecasting and control*. Wiley, 4th edition, 2008.

2. C. Brase and C. Brase. *Understanding Basic Statistics*. Cengage Learning, 2012.

3. P. Brockwell and R. Davis. *Introduction to Time Series and Forecasting*. Springer, 2010.

4. R. Devaney. *A First Course in Dynamical Systems*. Westview Press, 1992.

5. R. Duda, R. Hart, and D. Stork. *Pattern Classification*. Wiley, 2000.

6. A. Ghosh. *Dynamic Systems for Everyone: Understanding How Our World Works*. Springer, 2015.

7. M. Kiemele. *Basic Statistics*. Air Academy, 1997.

8. D. Meadows, J. Randers, and D. Meadows. *Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update*. Chelsea Green, 2004.

9. A. Oppenheim, A. Willsky, and H. Nawab. *Signals & Systems*. Prentice Hall, 1997.

10. A. Papoulis and S. Pillai. *Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes*. McGraw Hill, 2002.

11. R. Robinson. *An Introduction to Dynamical Systems*. Prentice Hall, 2004.

12. M. Scheffer. *Critical transitions in nature and society*. Princeton University Press, 2009.

13. E. Scheinerman. *Invitation to Dynamical Systems*. Dover, 2013.

14. P. Turchin. *Complex Population Dynamics*. Princeton, 2003.

15. P. Turchin. *Historical Dynamics: Why States Rise and Fall*. Princeton, 2003.

16. T. Urdan. *Statistics in Plain English*. Routledge, 2010.

**Chapter 5: Linear Systems**

Further Reading Links:

Linear system, Linear Time Invariant Systems Theory, Eigendecomposition, Jordan normal form, Control Theory

References:

1. B. Friedland. *Control System Design: An Introduction to State-Space Methods*. Dover, 2005.

2. Z. Gajic. *Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals*. Prentice Hall, 2003.

3. L. Gunderson and C. Holling. *Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems*. Island Press, 2012.

4. C. Martenson. *The Crash Course: The Unsustainable Future of our Economy, Energy, and Environment*. Wiley, 2011.

5. D. Meadows, J. Randers, and D. Meadows. *Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update*. Chelsea Green, 2004.

6. M. Neubert and H. Caswell. Alternatives to resilience for measuring the responses of ecological systems to perturbations. *Ecology*, 78(3), 1997.

7. N. Nise. *Control Systems Engineering*. Wiley, 2015.

8. A. Oppenheim, A. Willsky, and H. Nawab. *Signals & Systems*. Prentice Hall, 1997.

9. M. Scheffer. *Critical transitions in nature and society*. Princeton University Press, 2009.

10. E. Scheinerman. *Invitation to Dynamical Systems*. Dover, 2013.

11. L. Trefethen and M. Embree. *Spectra and Pseudospectra: The Behaviour of Nonnormal Matrices and Operators*. Princeton, 2005.

12. B. Walker and D. Salt. *Resilience Thinking: Sustaining Ecosystems and People in a Changing World*. Island Press, 2006.

**Chapter 6: Nonlinear Dynamic Systems — Uncoupled**

Further Reading Links:

Nonlinear Systems: Nonlinear System, Bifurcation theory, Hysteresis, Catastrophe Theory

Population: Population Dynamics, Carrying Capacity, Allee Effect, Predator-Prey Model

Climate Systems: Great Oxidation, Snowball Earth, Greenhouse and Icehouse Earth, Glacial Period, Milankovitch Cycles, Thermohaline Circulation, Little ice age, Medieval warm period

Other Papers:
Varshney et al., The kinematics of falling maple seeds . . . , *Nonlinearity* (25), 2012

Andersen et al., Analysis of transitions between fluttering . . . , *Fluid Mech.* (541), 2005

H. Petroski, Engineering: Designed to Fail, *American Scientist* (85) #5, 1997

References:

1. K. Alligood, T. Sauer, and J. Yorke. *Chaos: An Introduction to Dynamical Systems*. Springer, 2000.

2. V. Arnol’d. *Catastrophe Theory*. Springer, 1992. 593
3. G. Deffuant and N. Gilbert (ed.s). *Viability and Resilience of Complex Systems: Concepts, Methods and Case Studies from Ecology and Society*. Springer, 2011.

4. L. Gunderson and C. Holling. *Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems*. Island Press, 2012.

5. R. Hilborn. *Chaos and Nonlinear Dynamics: An Introduction for Scientists and Engineers*. Oxford, 2000.

6. P. Loring. The most resilient show on earth. *Ecology and Society*, 12, 2007.

7. D. Meadows, J. Randers, and D. Meadows. *Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update*. Chelsea Green, 2004.

8. J. Rockström, W. Steffen, et al. Planetary boundaries: exploring the safe operating space for humanity. *Ecology and Society*, 14, 2009.

9. M. Scheffer. *Critical transitions in nature and society*. Princeton University Press, 2009.

10. M. Scheffer, S. Carpenter, V. Dakos, and E. van Nes. Generic Indicators of Ecological Resilience: Inferring the Chance of a Critical Transition. *Annual Reviews*, 2015.

11. D. Sornette. *Why Stock Markets Crash*. Princeton, 2004.

12. S. Strogatz. *Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos*. Westview Press, 2014.

13. P. Turchin. *Complex Population Dynamics*. Princeton, 2003.

14. B. Walker and D. Salt. *Resilience Thinking: Sustaining Ecosystems and People in a Changing World*. Island Press, 2006.

**Chapter 7: Nonlinear Dynamic Systems — Coupled**

Further Reading Links:

Nonlinear Systems: Nonlinear System, Hopf bifurcation, Limit cycle, Chaos theory

Economic Cycles: Goodwin Model, Business Cycle, Elliott Wave, Kondratiev Wave

Tragedy of the Commons:
Tragedy of the Commons,
Prisoner’s dilemma,
Nash equilibrium

Hardin,
The Tragedy of the Commons, *Science* (162), 1968

Ostrom, *Governing the Commons*, Cambridge, 2015

Examples: El Niño, La Niña, Lotka-Volterra Equation, Newton’s Method, Attractor, Fractal, Stick-Slip phenomenon

References:

1. K. Alligood, T. Sauer, and J. Yorke. *Chaos: An Introduction to Dynamical Systems*. Springer, 2000.

2. M. Crucifix. Oscillators and relaxation phenomena in pleistocene climate theory. *Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A*, 370, 2012.

3. G. Deffuant and N. Gilbert. *Viability and Resilience of Complex Systems: Concepts, Methods and Case Studies from Ecology and Society*. Springer, 2011.

4. P. Fieguth and A. Wong. *Introduction to Pattern Recognition*. Springer. (in preparation).

5. L. Gunderson and C. Holling. *Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems*. Island Press, 2012.

6. R. Hilborn. *Chaos and Nonlinear Dynamics: An Introduction for Scientists and Engineers*. Oxford, 2000.

7. P. Loring. The most resilient show on earth. *Ecology and Society*, 12, 2007.

8. D. Meadows. *Thinking in Systems: A Primer*. Chelsea Green, 2008.

9. D. Meadows, J. Randers, and D. Meadows. *Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update*. Chelsea Green, 2004.

10. M. Scheffer. *Critical transitions in nature and society* Princeton University Press, 2009.

11. M. Scheffer, S. Carpenter, V. Dakos, and E. van Nes. Generic Indicators of Ecological Resilience: Inferring the Chance of a Critical Transition. *Annual Reviews*, 2015.

12. S. Strogatz. *Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos*. Westview Press, 2014.

13. B. Walker and D. Salt. *Resilience Thinking: Sustaining Ecosystems and People in a Changing World*. Island Press, 2006.

14. R. Wright. *A Short History of Progress*. House of Anansi Press, 2004.

**Chapter 8: Spatial Systems**

Further Reading Links:

Partial Differential Equations:
Partial Differential Equation,
Initial value problem,
Boundary value problem,
Discretization
Finite element method

Earth Systems:
Advection,
Navier–Stokes,
Coriolis effect,
Low-pressure area,
Ocean gyre,
Buys Ballot’s law

Lumped Parameter Models:
H. Stommel, Thermohaline Convection with Two Stable Regimes of Flow, *Tellus* (13) #2, 1961

H. Kaper, H. Engler, Mathematics & Climate, SIAM, 2013

Global Flows:
Water cycle,
Nitrogen cycle,
Carbon cycle,
Earth’s Energy Budget,

NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2)

NASA Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)

Cellular Automata and Agents:
Cellular automaton,
Conway’s Game of Life,
Forest Fire model,
Ising model,
Agent-Based model

Simulation Environments: GAMA, NetLogo, StarLogo, Others

Traffic:

Wikipedia Links: Traffic flow, Traffic simulation, Three-phase traffic theory

Simulation Projects: ARCADY, ARCHISIM, CORSIM, MATSim

References:

1. J. Adam. *Mathematics in Nature: Modeling Patterns in the Natural World*. Princeton, 2006.

2. P. Bak. *How Nature Works*, Copernicus, 1996.

3. M. Batty. *The New Science of Cities*. MIT Press, 2013.

4. H. Dijkstra. *Nonlinear Climate Dynamics*. Cambridge, 2013.

5. L. Evans. *Partial Differential Equations*. American Mathematical Society, 2010.

6. S. Farlow. *Partial Differential Equations for Scientists and Engineers*. Dover Books, 1993.

7. B. Friedland. *Control System Design*. Dover, 2005.

8. J. Giles. Climate science: The dustiest place on earth. *Nature*, 434, 2005.

9. R. Hamming. *Numerical Methods for Scientists and Engineers*. Dover, 1987.

10. B. Hayes. Follow the money. *American Scientist*, 90(5), 2002.

11. H. Kaper and H. Engler. *Mathematics & Climate*. SIAM, 2013.

12. I. Koren et al. The Bodélé depression. *Environmental Research Letters*, 1, 2006.

13. R. Malone, R. Smith, M. Maltrud, and M. Hecht. Eddy–Resolving Ocean Modeling. *Los Alamos Science*, 2003.

14. D. Meadows, J. Randers, and D. Meadows. *Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update*. Chelsea Green, 2004.

15. M. Mitchell. *Complexity: A Guided Tour*. Oxford, 2009.

16. A. Oppenheim, A. Willsky, and H. Nawab. *Signals & Systems*. Prentice Hall, 1997.

17. H. Peitgen, H. Jürgens, and D. Saupe. *Chaos and Fractals: New Frontiers of Science*. Springer, 2004.

18. B. Saltzman. *Dynamical Paleoclimatology: Generalized Theory of Global Climate Change*. Academic Press, 2001.

19. M. Schroeder. *Fractals, Chaos, Power Laws: Minutes from an Infinite Paradise*. Dover, 2009.

20. M. Sipser. *Introduction to the Theory of Computation*. Cengage Learning, 2012.

21. W. Strauss. *Partial Differential Equations: An Introduction*. Wiley, 2007.

22. S. Strogatz. Exploring complex networks. *Nature*, 410, 2001.

23. F. White. *Fluid Mechanics*. McGraw Hill, 2010.

24. S. Wolfram. *A New Kind of Science*. Wolfram Media, 2002.

**Chapter 9: Power Laws and Non-Gaussian Systems**

Further Reading Links:

Distributions:
Normal Distribution,
Central Limit Theorem,
Exponential Distribution,
Memorylessness,
Poisson Distribution,
Power law,
Black swan,
Heavy-Tailed Distributions

Power Laws:
Zipf’s Law,
Benford’s Law,
Pareto Principle,
Pareto Distribution,
Gutenberg-Richter Law

Power Laws and Cities:

Bettencourt, The Origin of Scaling in Cities, *Science* (340), 2013

Bettencourt et al., Growth, innovation, scaling, and the pace of life in cities, *PNAS* (104), 2007

Discount Functions: Time preference, Time value of money, Hyperbolic discounting

Principles: Scale invariance, Scale-free network, Preferential attachment, Fitness model

References:

1. P. Bak. *How Nature Works*. Copernicus, 1996.

2. J. Diamond. *Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed*. Penguin, 2011.

3. B. Hayes. Follow the money. *American Scientist*, 90(5), 2002.

4. G. Lawler. *Introduction to Stochastic Processes*. Chapman & Hall, 2006.

5. R. Lowenstein. *When Genius Failed: The Rise and Fall of Long-Term Capital Management*.
Random House, 2001.

6. D. Manin. Zipf’s law and avoidance of excessive synonymy. *Cognitive Science*, 32, 2008.

7. S. Resnick. *Adventures in Stochastic Processes*. Birkhäuser, 2002.

8. M. Schroeder. *Fractals, Chaos, Power Laws: Minutes from an Infinite Paradise*. Dover, 2009.

9. D. Sornette. *Critical Phenomena in Natural Sciences*. Springer, 2006.

10. M. Stumpf and M. Porter. Critical truths about power laws. *Science*, 335, 2012.

11. N. Taleb. *The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable*. Random House, 2010.

Complex Systems:
Complex system,
Phase transition,
Critical phenomena,
Critical point,
Universality,
Percolation theory,
Network theory,
Chaos theory

Self Organized Criticality:
Self-organized Criticality,
Self-organization,
Emergence

Complex Behaviours: Swarm behaviour, Flocking

Control of Complex Systems:

D. Cajueiro, R. Andrade,
Controlling self-organized criticality in sandpile models, *Phys. Rev. E* (81), 2010

P. Noël, C. Brummitt, R. D’Souza,
Controlling Self-Organizing Dynamics on Networks Using Models that Self-Organize, *Phys. Rev. Letters* (111), 2013

Cascading Complex Systems:

W. Aiello, F. Chung, L. Lu, A random graph model for power law graphs, *Experiment. Math.* (10), 2001.

S. Buldyrev et al. Catastrophic cascade of failures in interdependent networks. *Nature Physics*, 464, 2010.

S. Rinaldi et al. Identifying, understanding, and analyzing critical infrastructure interdependencies. *IEEE Control Systems Magazine*, 21, 2001.

B. Carreras et al.,
Evidence for Self-Organized Criticality in a Time Series of Electric Power System Blackouts, *IEEE Circuits and Sytems I* (51), 2004

Dobson et al.,
Complex Systems Analysis of Series of Blackouts, *Chaos* (17), 2007

W. Kröger, E. Zio, *Vulnerable Systems*, Springer, 2011

Dictyostelium (Slime Mould): Dictyostelium, Overview, Tutorial, Sample Video

Resilience:
Definitions,
Stockholm Resilience Centre

J. Greer, Salvaging Resilience

P. Smith et al., Network Resilience: A Systematic Approach, *IEEE Communications Magazine*, 2011

*Viability and Resilience of Complex Systems: Concepts, Methods and Case Studies from Ecology and Society*. Springer, 2011.

References:

1. S. Arora and B. Barak. *Computational Complexity: A Modern Approach*. Cambridge, 2009.

2. P. Bak. *How Nature Works*. Copernicus, 1996.

3. P. Bak and K. Chen. Self-Organized Criticality. *Scientific American*, 1991.

4. Y. Bar-Yam. *Dynamics of Complex Systems*. Addison-Wesley, 1997.

5. S. Buldyrev et al. Catastrophic cascade of failures in interdependent networks. *Nature Physics*, 464, 2010.

6. R. Cohen and S. Havlin. *Complex Networks: Structure, Robustness and Function*. Cambridge, 2010.

7. G. Deffuant and N. Gilbert (ed.s).

8. S. Dorogovtsev, A. Goltsev, and J. Mendes. Critical phenomena in complex networks. *Reviews of Modern Physics*, 80, 2008.

9. L. Fisher. *The Perfect Swarm – The Science of Complexity in Everyday Life*. Basic Books, 2009.

10. R. Frigg. Self-organised criticality — what it is and what it isn’t. *Studies in History and Philosophy of Science*, 34, 2003.

11. J. Gribbin. *Deep Simplicity: Bringing Order to Chaos and Complexity*. Random House, 2005.

12. H. Hoffmann and D. Payton. Suppressing cascades in a self-organized model with non-contiguous spread of failures. *Chaos, Solitons, & Fractals*, 67, 2014.

13. J. Holland. *Complexity: A Very Short Introduction*. Oxford, 2014.

14. S. Johnson. *Emergence*. Scribner, 2001.

15. M. Mitchell. *Complexity: A Guided Tour*. Oxford, 2009.

16. H. Peitgen, H. Jürgens, and D. Saupe. *Chaos and Fractals: New Frontiers of Science*. Springer, 2004.

17. S. Rinaldi et al. Identifying, understanding, and analyzing critical infrastructure interdependencies. *IEEE Control Systems Magazine*, 21, 2001.

18. M. Scheffer. *Critical transitions in nature and society*. Princeton University Press, 2009.

19. M. Scheffer, S. Carpenter, V. Dakos, and E. van Nes. Generic Indicators of Ecological Resilience: Inferring the Chance of a Critical Transition. *Annual Reviews*, 2015.

20. M. Sipser. *Introduction to the Theory of Computation*. Cengage Learning, 2012.

21. S. Strogatz. Exploring complex networks. *Nature*, 410, 2001.

22. B. Walker and D. Salt. *Resilience Thinking: Sustaining Ecosystems and People in a Changing World*. Island Press, 2006.

23. S. Wolfram. *A New Kind of Science*. Wolfram Media, 2002.

**Chapter 11: Observation and Inference**

Further Reading Links:

Electromagnetics: Electromagnetic Radiation, Electromagnetic Spectrum, Scattering, Reflection (Physics), Radiative transfer, Planck’s law

Radar: Radar, Synthetic Aperture Radar, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar

Remote Sensing: Remote Sensing, Satellite, List of orbits

Sensing Types: Microwave Radiometer, Scatterometer, Weather satellite, Altimeter

Sensing Platforms: Landsat program, Hubble Space Telescope, Radarsat-2, NASA Jason-2 Altimeter

Inverse Problems: Inverse Problem, Least Squares, Data Assimilation, Regularization, Medical Imaging

References:

1. R. Aster, B. Borchers, and C. Thurber. *Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems*. Academic Press, 2005.

2. M. Bertero and P. Boccacci. *Introduction to Inverse Problems in Imaging*. Taylor & Francis, 1998.

3. A. Chandra and S. Ghosh. *Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System*. Alpha Science, 2015.

4. A. Tikhonov et al.. *Numerical Methods for the Solution of Ill-Posed Problems*. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995.

5. L. Kump et al.. *The Earth System*. Prentice Hall, 2010.

6. P. Fieguth. *Statistical Image Processing and Multidimensional Modeling*. Springer, 2010.

7. T. Lillesand, R. Kiefer, and J. Chipman. *Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation*. Wiley, 2015.

8. F. Mackenzie. *Our Changing Planet*. Prentice Hall, 2011.

**Chapter 12: Water**

Further Reading Links:

Ocean Acidification:

S. Doney, The Dangers of Ocean Acidification, *Scientific American*, 2006

E. Kolbert, The Acid Sea, *National Geographic*, 2011

Ocean Garbage:
Marine Debris,
Great Pacific Garbage Patch

L. Parker,
Ocean Trash: 5.25 Trillion Pieces and Counting, *National Geographic*, 2015

Groundwater: Groundwater Recharge, Overdrafting, Ogallala Aquifer, Hydrogeology

References:

1. S. Grace. *Dam Nation: How Water Shaped theWest and Will Determine Its Future*. Globe Pequot Press, 2013.

2. S. Lovejoy and D. Schertzer. *The Weather and Climate: Emergent Laws and Multifractal Cascades*. Cambridge, 2013.
3. C. Roberts. *An Unnatural History of the Sea*. Harper Collins, 2009.

4. C. Roberts. *The Ocean of Life*. Viking, 2012.

5. M. Scheffer. *Critical transitions in nature and society*. Princeton University Press, 2009.

6. S. Solomon. *Water: The Epic Struggle for Wealth, Power, and Civilization*. Harper Collins, 2009.

7. M. De Villiers. *Water: The Fate of Our Most Precious Resource*. McClelland & Stewart, 2003.

8. A. Weisman. *The World Without Us*. Picador, 2007.

**Chapter 13: Concluding Thoughts**

1. F. Capra and P. Luisi. *The Systems View of Life: A Unifying Vision*. Cambridge, 2014.

2. A. Ghosh. *Dynamic Systems for Everyone: Understanding How Our World Works*. Springer, 2015.

3. M. Mitchell. *Complexity: A Guided Tour*. Oxford, 2009.

4. M. Scheffer. *Critical transitions in nature and society* Princeton University Press, 2009.

5. A. Weisman. *The World Without Us*. Picador, 2007.
6. R. Wright. *A Short History of Progress*. House of Anansi Press, 2004.

1. D. Damiano and J. Little. *A Course in Linear Algebra*. Dover, 2011.

2. D. Lay, S. Lay, and J. McDonald. *Linear Algebra and Its Applications*. Pearson, 2014.

3. D. Poole. Linear Algebra: A Modern Introduction. Brooks Cole, 2014.